• Age Indicators [Cattle]
    • 2 broad teeth  -  21- 27 months
    • 4 broad teeth  -  27 - 33 months
    • 6 broad teeth  -  33 - 39 months
    • 8 broad teeth   -  39 months onwards
  • Age Indicators [Sheep]
    • First pair of incisors cut     10 -12 months
    • First pair incisors fully up   12 - 19 months
    • Second pair incisors cut     19 - 24 months
    • Third pair incisors fully up  24 - 36 months
    • Fourth pair incisors fully up    36+ months
  • Aged Ram [Sheep]

    Male, not castrated over five years old (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Agistment [Livestock General]

    The provision of grazing for another person's livestock for a payment.

  • AGR-Environmental Schemes [General]

    Schemes to encourage environmentally friendly farm practices

  • Arable [Arable]

    Land that is croppable.

  • Artificial Insemination (AI) [Livestock General]

    Impregnating an animal by artificial means and not by natural breeding.

  • Artificials [Arable]

    Manufactured fertilizers.

  • Assurance Schemes [General]

    Schemes with guaranteed standards of quality, traceability and, often, welfare of animals. Usually required by supermarkets of their suppliers.

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  • Baconer - Fat Stock Production Terms [Pigs]

    Slaughter at 22 - 24 weeks at 90kg 

  • Barren [Cattle]

    Cow which has been mated but is not in calf

  • Barren Gilt [Pigs]

    Female from 12 weeks up to second litter at 18 months not in-pig

  • Battery [Poultry]

    Housing system of tiers of cages.

  • Beef Cattle Scheme [Cattle]

    Headage payment made on beef calves in Scotland to support the supply and quality of Scotch beef and the environment.

  • Boar [Pigs]


  • Brassicas [Arable]

    The likes of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, sprouts & swede.

  • Brewer's Grains [Livestock General]

    Feeding stuff made of the remains of barley that has been used in the brewing industry.

  • Broiler [Poultry]

    Intensively reared slaughtered at 6 - 7 weeks.

  • Bull [Cattle]

    Uncastrated male over 2 years old.

  • Bull Beef [Cattle]

    An entire animal raised for beef.

  • Bullock [Cattle]

    Feeding/Fattening - Castrated male being fed for slaughter

  • Bullock/ Stirk [Cattle]

    Castrated male.

  • Butterfat [Cattle]

    The fatty substance found in milk from which comes cream and butter. Used as measure of the quality of milk.

  • Byre/Shippan/Cowshed [Livestock General]

    Traditional housing for dairy cattle in stalls

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  • Cake [Cattle]

    Cattle food compressed into slabs.

  • Calf [Cattle]

    Uncastrated male up to 1 year old

  • Calf [Cattle]

    Female 0-6 months old.

  • Calving Interval [Cattle]

    Period between one calving and the next, usually 375 days.

  • Calving/ Calved [Cattle]

    At first calving 2-3 years old.

  • CAP [General]

    The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU that underpins agriculture throughout Europe.

  • Capon [Poultry]

    Castrated male bird slaughtered at 18 weeks.

  • Cash Crop [Arable]

    One that is sold as opposed to being kept for own use.

  • Catch Crop [Arable]

    One that occupies the land for a short time between two main crops.

  • Cattle Passport [Cattle]

    Compulsory identification document for all cattle to enable the recording of births, deaths, imports and the whereabouts of animals.

  • Cereals [Arable]

    The cultivated members of the grass family such as wheat, barley, oats and rye.

  • Chick [Poultry]

    Day old to 8 weeks.

  • Clamp [Arable]

    A bulk store, for silage or root crops, in the open often covered with tarpaulins weighted down with old tyres.

  • Closed Herd [Livestock General]

    One where replacements are bred within the herd and not brought in from outside.

  • Cock [Poultry]

    Male over 18 months.

  • Cockerel [Poultry]

    Male 6 - 18 months.

  • Compound Fertiliser [Arable]

    A mixture of nitrogen, phosphate & potash.

  • Countryside Stewardship Scheme [General]

    An agreement to manage land in an environmentally friendly way in return for annual payments. The Scheme ends in 2014, replaced by the Environmental Stewardship schemes.

  • Coupled Payments [General]

    Subsidy payments directly linked to production.

  • Cow [Cattle]

    Female after having given birth to second calf.

  • Cross Compliance [General]

    Requirements laid down in the Single Farm Payment Scheme relating to good management of the land and environment.

  • Cubicles/ Kennels [Cattle]

    Method of housing cattle in groups with provision for individual stalls.

  • Cull/Cast [Sheep]

    Ewe due to be culled from the herd.

  • Cutter - Fat Stock Production Terms [Pigs]

    Slaughter at 20 - 22 weeks at 80kg

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  • Dairy/ Milk [Cattle]

    Cow producing milk for human consumption/processing.

  • Dam [Cattle]

    Mother cow of a particular calf.

  • Deadstock [General]

    A farmer's stock other than livestock, e.g. corn and hay, sometimes used to include tools, machinery and fertilisers.

  • Decoupled Payments [General]

    Subsidy payments linked to the area of land farmed and not directly to production.

  • Deep Litter [Poultry]

    Housing system containing large groups of birds on a bedding of, for example, wood shavings.

  • Diversification [General]

    The use of farmland or buildings for non-agricultural purposes e.g. warehousing, paint balling.

  • Draft [Sheep]

    Ewe moved from hill/uplands for breeding on lowland farms.

  • Draft/ Cull [Cattle]

    Cow due for sale or slaughter.

  • Dung [Livestock General]

    Farmyard manure.

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  • Easement [General]

    A right to use, or restrict to the use of, land belonging to someone else e.g. a right to draw water from a neighbouring farm, or to erect an electricity pylon.

  • EID [Livestock General]

    Electronic identification of farm animals usually by micro-chipped ear tags.

  • Environmental Stewardship Scheme [General]

    A scheme to provide funding to encourage farmers and other landowners to improve the environmental management of their land. See Factsheet.

  • Environmentally Sensitive Areas [General]

    A scheme to safeguard and enhance parts of the country of high landscape, wildlife or historic value. Ends in 2014, replaced by Environmental Stewardship schemes.

  • Ewe [Sheep]

    Female after second shear (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Ewe Hogg [Sheep]

    Female weaning to first shear (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Ewe Hogget [Sheep]

    Female weaning to first shear (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Ewe Lamb [Sheep]

    Birth- weaning female (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Ewe/Gimmer Shearling [Sheep]

    Female first to second shear (Name will vary between different regions)

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  • Fallen Stock [Livestock General]

    Animals that have died on the farm. These need to be removed as on-farm burial is prohibited

  • Fallow/Bare Fallow [Arable]

    Land left idle during the growing season.

  • Farrow [Pigs]

    Giving birth to piglets, producing around 20 piglets per year in 2 batches.

  • Fat Lamb [Sheep]

    Lamb sold for meat.

  • Feeding/ Fat [Pigs]

    Sow female after having second litter, being fed for slaughter

  • Flying Herd [Livestock General]

    A herd where replacement stock is frequently bought in from outside.

  • Followers [Cattle]

    Young stock in a dairy herd intended as replacements in the production herd.

  • Forage Crop [Arable]

    A crop for animal feeding and not human consumption.

  • Freemartin [Cattle]

    Heifer calf born as a twin to a bull calf, usually infertile

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  • Gangmaster [General]

    A supplier of labour, usually seasonal, to farmers.

  • Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) [General]

    An organism that has been altered in a way that does not occur by natural mating or development.

  • Gestation [Livestock General]

    The period from egg fertilisation to birth, varies with species:-

    • Cattle - 9 months
    • Sheep - 5 months
    • Pigs - 4 months 
  • Gestation Period [Cattle]

    Period from conception to parturition, average 283 days.

  • Gilt [Pigs]

    Female from 12 weeks up to second litter at 18 months.

  • Gimmer Hogg [Sheep]

    Female weaning to first shear (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Gimmer Lamb [Sheep]

    Birth- weaning female (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Glastir [General]

    A 5 year whole farm sustainable land management scheme available to farmers and land managers across Wales.From 2012, Glastir will replace the existing agri-environment schemes

  • Green Manure [Arable]

    A crop grown to be ploughed in to fertilise the soil.

  • Grit [Sheep]

    Ewe sold when pregnant.

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  • Hay [Arable]

    Grass which has been dried naturally.

  • Haylage [Arable]

    A form of silage with a high dry matter content.

  • Heavy Hogg - Fat Stock Production Terms [Pigs]

    Slaughter at 24 - 30 weeks at 100kg.

  • Heft [Sheep]

    A group of sheep grazing in a particular range of mountain pasture. Hefting is the propensity of mountain sheep to remain on "their" part of the unfenced land.

  • Heifer [Cattle]

    Female 6 months to 3 years old

  • Hen (Turkey Term) [Poultry]

    Adult female over 18 months

  • Hirsel [Sheep]

    A number of hefts in a group.

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  • IACS [General]

    Integrated Administration and Control System underpins the CAP subsidy regime.

  • In Calf [Cattle]

    Pregnant cow

  • Intervention [General]

    A mechanism used by the EU to maintain market prices by buying produce when the market is over-supplied and prices fall below a threshold. Produce is then sold when supplies are reduced and market prices rise. The effect is to help insulate EU farmers from the true world market and to keep EU prices artificially high.

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  • Lactation [Cattle]

    Period during which milk is produced, usually 10 months.

  • Ley [Arable]

    Temporary or rotational grassland.

  • LFA [General]

    Less Favoured Areas, land in hill and upland regions.

  • LFA Support Scheme [General]

    Payments to support farmers in Less Favoured Areas.

  • Loose Housing [Cattle]

    Method of housing cattle in groups

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  • Machinery Ring [General]

    A grouping of farmers and others involved in agriculture that pool their resources to help contain costs and make the best use of specialised equipment and expertise. See Factsheet.

  • Model Clauses [General]

    Standard legal agreements covering a range of farming and related enterprises, produced by the NFUs for their members.

  • Modulation [General]

    The use of a portion of the SFP funds to support agri-environment schemes.

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  • National Scrapie Plan [Sheep]

    A long-term plan to breed increased numbers of sheep that genetically are resistant to the disease scrapie

  • Nitrate Vulnerable Zones [Arable]

    Areas where there is an identified danger of pollution of rivers, lakes and other water sources by nitrates used in agricultural fertilisers

  • Notifiable Diseases [Livestock General]

    Diseases where any confirmed or suspected outbreak must be notified to the authorities e.g. foot-and-mouth.

  • Nurse Crop [Arable]

    A crop providing protection for another e.g. grass under sown in cereals.

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  • Old Ewe [Sheep]

    Female over five years old (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Organophosphates (OP) [Sheep]

    Chemicals used in sheep dips that were alleged to have caused health problems for operatives. No firm proof has yet emerged.

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  • Pedigree [Livestock General]

    Pure bred animal registered with the breed society.

  • Piglet [Pigs]

    Pig up to 4 weeks old.

  • Point Of Lay [Poultry]

    Female about to start laying at 18 weeks.

  • Porker - Fat Stock Production Terms [Pigs]

    Slaughter at 18 - 20 weeks at 70kg.

  • Poult (Turkey Term) [Poultry]

    Bird up to 8 weeks

  • Poultry Register [Poultry]

    A compulsory register of all flocks of over 50 birds intended to help in the management of any outbreak of disease such as Avian Flu.

  • Power-Take-Off (PTO) [General]

    A shaft, usually at the rear of a tractor powered by the engine, to drive an implement.

  • Pullet [Poultry]

    Female 6 weeks to 18 months.

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  • Quota [General]

    A licence to produce a maximum amount of a product such as milk or sugar beet. Quotas are allocated on national and individual levels under EU rules. Quota is often bought, sold and leased between farmers.

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  • Ram Lamb [Sheep]

    Birth- weaning male, not castrated (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Ram/Tup [Sheep]

    Male after second shear, not castrated (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Ram/Tup Hogget [Sheep]

    Male, weaning to first shear, not castrated (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Ram/Tup Shearling [Sheep]

    First to second shear, not castrated male (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Ramm Hogg [Sheep]

    Male, weaning to first shear, not castrated (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Red Diesel [General]

    Diesel that carries a much lower fuel tax and is strictly for agricultural purposes only. The fuel is stained red for ease of identification and the rules are rigidly enforced by Revenue & Customs with high penalties for improper use.

  • Red Tractor Logo [General]

    A quality assurance scheme denoting produce that is 100% British produced, processed and packed.

  • Rig [Livestock General]

    Male with one testicle.

  • Right To Roam [General]

    The right of public access to designated areas under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act (CROW).

  • Root Crops [Arable]

    The likes of potatoes and beet.

  • Rough Grazing [Livestock General]

    Land which is usually unploughable.

  • Runt [Pigs]

    Underdeveloped pig.

  • Rural Development Programme [General]

    Programme to support improvements in competitiveness in agriculture and forestry, safeguard and enhance rural development and foster sustainable rural businesses and communities.

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  • Service [Livestock General]

    The act of impregnating a female.

  • Set-Aside [General]

    Land taken out of production or used for non-food or animal feed crops as required under EU rules.

  • Silage [Arable]

    Grass and other green crops preserved in a moist state generally with molasses or other additives, either in a clamp, or in a silo tower. Mainly used as cattle feed.

  • Silo [Arable]

    An airtight container into which fresh cut grass and other green stuff is packed to make silage.

  • Single Farm Payment (SFP) [General]

    The annual payment to farmers under the EU CAP. See Factsheet.

  • Sire [Cattle]

    Bull which has fathered a particular calf.

  • Site Of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) [General]

    A site designated under the Wildlife & Countryside Act as being an outstanding example of our natural heritage.

  • Slats [Cattle]

    Method of housing cattle in groups on slats with a cellar below to collect dung & urine.

  • Slurry [Arable]

    A mixture of animal waste solids and liquid.

  • Slurry [Livestock General]

    A mixture of animal waste solids and liquid.

  • Sow [Pigs]

    Female after having second litter.

  • Stag (Turkey Term) [Poultry]

    Adult male

  • Stewardship Schemes [General]

    Schemes to provide funds for landowners to improve the environmental management of their land. See Environmental Stewardship Factsheet.

  • Stirk [Cattle]

    Female 6-18 months.

  • Store [Livestock General]

    Generally cattle or sheep sold or bought for fattening.

  • Subsoiling [Arable]

    Breaking up the soil to a depth of 18 inches to improve drainage.

  • Suckled Calf [Cattle]

    Calf up to 12 months which is, or has, suckled its dam.

  • Suckler [Cattle]

    Cow suckling a calf.

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  • Teaser [Sheep]

    Vasectomised ram used to bring ewes into heat.

  • Tir Gofal [General]

    Welsh agri-environment scheme due to end on 31st December 2013.

  • Tir Mynydd [General]

    Scheme to support and maintain livestock production in the less productive farming areas of Wales

  • Tup Hogg [Sheep]

    Male, weaning to first shear, not castrated (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Tup Lamb [Sheep]

    Birth- weaning male, not castrated (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Tupping [Sheep]


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  • Veal Calf [Cattle]

    Calf raised for veal production.

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  • Wayleave [General]

    The fee paid to landowners to allow equipment such as electricity pylons and telegraph poles to be erected on their land.

  • Weaned [Sheep]

    Ewe from which lambs have been weaned.

  • Weaned Calf [Cattle]

    Calf now on solid food, not milk.

  • Weaner [Pigs]

    Female 4 to 12 weeks old.

  • Wether Hogg [Sheep]

    Castrated male, weaning to first shear (Name will vary between different regions)

  • Wether Lamb [Sheep]

    Castrated, birth- weaning male (Name will vary between different regions)

  • WGS [General]

    Woodland Grant Scheme provides grants to create new woodlands and improve the management and regeneration of existing ones.

  • Winter Cereals [Arable]

    Cereal crops sown in the autumn.

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  • Yearling [Cattle]

    Uncastrated male up to 2 years old

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  • Zoonoses [Livestock General]

    Infections that can be transmitted between animals and humans.

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